Body temperature: methods of measurement
In the past, body temperature was determined by measuring heart rate or placing a hand on the patient’s forehead. However this can hardly be called an accurate measurement. The perception of temperature fluctuations is different for each person. It depends on the temperature of the measuring arm and the depth of the subcutaneous capillaries. The patient’s skin condition also plays a role and which areas of the body are touched – open areas of the body are usually cold, and underclothing or in body layers – are warm. Therefore, if there is currently no thermometer, it is better to determine the presence of a high temperature not from the back of the hand, as many are accustomed to, but with the lips, because they are more sensitive. But it is still better to measure the temperature with a thermometer.
The normal human body temperature range is typically stated as 36.5–37.5 °C (97.7–99.5 °F). Temperatures above 38 degrees are a dangerous symptom, danger above 39, and dangerous above 40. A body temperature of 42 degrees is important for humans. Such heating results in the suspension of hormones, as well as cellular enzymes, and practically accumulates in blood vessels, forming blood clots. Therefore, if mild fever can be brought about by physical means, a high temperature is a direct indication for taking antipyretic drugs.
The role of immunity in fever
When viruses and bacteria are detected, the immune cell system begins to produce pyrogens. These substances act on the thermoregulatory center in the diencephalon – the hypothalamus, providing an increase in the patient’s body temperature. As a result, the body perceives high temperature quite normally. At the same time, hormones are produced in the cells of the thyroid gland, as well as the adrenal glands, which activate metabolic processes that cause spasm of capillaries, as well as contractions of small muscles, perceived by a person as chills. All these phenomena lead to an increase in temperature levels, which is required for the battle of immunity with pathogens.
When is temperature rise dangerous.
High body temperature is an undoubted sign that some pathological process is developing in the body, usually of an inflammatory nature. The higher the temperature, the faster it rises, or the longer it lasts, the more serious the problem that caused it can be. This is why the fever is scary.
Causes of high temperature
Fever occurs when an area of your brain, also known as the hypothalamus – known as the “thermostat” of your body – shifts the set point of your normal body temperature upward. When this happens, you may feel cold and add layers of clothing or wrap it in a blanket, or you may shiver to produce more body heat, resulting in increased body temperature.
Any inflammatory process can cause a rise in temperature. The nature of inflammation in this case can be different – bacterial, viral, fungal.
Diseases in which a high fever can occur without other symptoms:
- SARS and flu. Influenza, and in some cases other acute respiratory viral infections, can begin with a sudden rise in temperature. In this case, catarrhal phenomena begin a little later (late in the evening or the next day);
- Angina- A sore throat is usually observed with fever when swallowing. The sore throat gets worse rather quickly, so you can’t miss it;
- Chickenpox (chicken pox)- Typically the onset of chickenpox is high temperature. Characteristic rashes can appear only on the 2-3 day of the disease;
- Abscess (accumulation of pus in surface tissues or in internal organs)- With an abscess, the temperature “floats”: temperature peaks can be interspersed with normal temperature during the day (in contrast to the temperature schedule typical for an “ordinary” infectious disease – when the lowest temperature is observed after waking up in the morning, and grows up in the evening);
- Inflammation of the genitourinary system (pyelonephritis, glomerulonephritis) is usually manifested by high fever and pain in the projection of the kidneys. But in some cases, there may be no pain;
- Hemorrhagic fever (usually infection occurs with the bite of wild animals, for example, a vole mouse). Here, too, there are characteristic symptoms – a decrease (up to cessation) of urination, the appearance of subcutaneous hemorrhages (pinpoint redness of the skin, rash), muscle pain.
What to do at fever
- Unless the person is uncomfortable, no treatment for mild fever is necessary. If fever is 102 or more:
- Give acetaminophen or ibuprofen as directed on the label.
- The air in the room where the patient is located should be fresh and cool.
- Bathing or sponging in lukewarm water can bring down the temperature. Do not use cold water or alcohol.
- Wear light clothing and use a light cover or sheet. If the person feels cold, use an extra blanket until they are gone.
- the person drink lots of fluids to stay hydrated. for example-Fruit fruit drinks, tea with lemon, green tea are excellent.
- If the fever lasts for more than 3 days, call a doctor.