Myopia : Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis, and Treatment

What is a Myopia (nearsightedness)?

Myopia (nearsightedness) is the most common vision problem in the world. This is a refractive error of vision, in which a person sees well near and poorly in the distance. This defect lies in the fact that, due to a refractive error, the image is focused not on the retina, but in front of it. Myopia is a type of ametropia. To solve this problem, you can use glasses or contact lenses with negative optical power values.


It is customary to distinguish three degrees of myopia: weak – up to 3.0 diopters, medium – 6.0 diopters, high – over 6.0 diopters.

Along the course, myopia is distinguished between non-progressive and progressive. The progression of myopia can proceed slowly and end with the completion of the growth of the organism. Sometimes myopia progresses continuously, reaches high degrees (up to 30.0-40.0 diopters), is accompanied by a number of complications and a significant decrease in vision. Such myopia is called malignant myopic disease.

Non-progressive myopia is manifested by a decrease in distance vision, is well corrected, and does not require treatment. Temporarily progressive myopia also proceeds favorably. Constantly progressive myopia is always a serious illness and is the main cause of disability. associated with the pathology of the organ of vision.

The manifestations of myopia are associated with the presence of a primary weakness of accommodation, overstrain of convergence, and stretching of the posterior part of the eye that occurs after the growth of the eye stops.

Myopia symptoms

Nearsightedness symptoms may include:

  • The main symptom of the disease is blurred vision when looking at distant objects.
  • Constantly squinting eyes, covering eyelids with hands, while trying to peer into the distance.
  • Weakness of the visual apparatus at night,
  • Widening of the palpebral fissure and mild bulging.
  • Bluish tint to the sclera of the eye.
  • The appearance of flies, flashes, and threads before the eyes.
  • Rapid fatigue of the organ of vision, even after a short work.
  • Constant eye strain, permanent feeling of fatigue.
  • The presence of headaches and eye pains.
  • Close proximity of books and other objects in front of the eyes.
  • Constant urge to rub your eyes.
  • Blink excess eyelids

If one of these symptoms or their complex manifestation is found, it is imperative to visit an ophthalmologist and check the organs of vision for the development of myopia.

Causes of myopia

The following factors should be considered in the development of myopia.

  • Genetics is undoubted of great importance since myopic parents often have myopic children.
  • Unfavorable environmental conditions, especially with prolonged work at close range. This is professional and school myopia, which is especially easily formed when the development of the body is not completed.
  • The primary weakness of accommodation leads to compensatory stretching of the eyeball.
  • An unbalanced tension of accommodation and convergence causes a spasm of accommodation and the development of false and then true myopia.
  • A refractive error — If your cornea or lens is not uniformly and smoothly rotated, the light rays do not refract properly, and you have a refractive error.

Treatment of myopia

Eye treatment for myopia is prescribed after examination by an ophthalmologist. To stabilize the condition and exclude deterioration, the following methods are used:

  • Medication. Correction of visual acuity is carried out with the help of drugs.
  • Physiotherapy. During therapy, an infrared laser, percutaneous electrical stimulation, and endonasal electrophoresis can be used.
  • Optic. Correction of myopia is carried out through lenses and glasses.
  • Surgical. Surgery is performed.

In order to restore visual acuity, or at least prevent the progression of the disease, treatment should be started immediately after the pathology is detected and the recommendations of an ophthalmologist should be followed.

Prevention of myopia

It has been established that recently myopia occurs more and more often in childhood. Therefore, it is so important to start preventing this disease from an early age.

There are several ways to prevent it:

  • Maintaining a distance to the reading object of 40 cm. This will allow you to strain your eyes, and reduce the effort applied to focus the ciliary muscle.
  • Compliance with breaks in visual work. Do not strain your eyes for more than 40 minutes, and the break should not be less than 10 minutes.
  • Proper lighting is another measure to prevent myopia. Natural sunlight is considered optimal for work. If it is not enough, then you should definitely use artificial lamps. However, the light should not be blinding.
  • It is important to ensure a proper fit while working at the computer or studying. The back should not be bent, the head should be straight, and reading in bed and in moving vehicles is prohibited.
  • Regular eye exercises and good nutrition are equally important. it is important to balance your diet. It is necessary to include in the diet foods with a high concentration of calcium and protein (cottage cheese, dried apricots, prunes, red meat).
  • Regular check-ups with an ophthalmologist should become a habit, especially if the person is at risk of developing myopia. Clinical examination in a local polyclinic is an excellent way to prevent many diseases, including myopia.
  • Correction of vision when detecting mild myopia. You should not give up wearing glasses or lenses, even if the person does not feel the symptoms of the disease.

prevention is better than cure.

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